Read also (In)Famous Quotes From Lee Kuan Yew.
“Going public for something that was “not a major event” might have caused unnecessary panic to the layman” – Khaw Boon Wan (2016)
- Khaw Boon Wan trivalising hairline cracks discovered in the MRT trains three years ago only to be exposed by Hong Kong journalists that the trains were shipped back to China discreetly in 2016.
- The social media thinks that the Government has something to hide rather than worry about panic. Panic what panic? Demonstration or boycott taking MRT?
- read more at “What Khaw Boon Wan said is reasonable” and #ownselfcheckownself
“Is it really that easy to manage a Town Council? This candidate (Dr Chee Soon Juan) hasn’t worked for the last 20 years, does he have the relevant experience in management?” – Grace Fu aka DisGraceFul (2016)
- “He (Chee Soon Juan) wants to be a full-time MP. As far as I know, he has not held a full-time job for a long time. Working experience is essential and when you want to employ someone, you will look at their experience.”
- Chee Soon Juan has been writing books, giving speeches, writing political articles and blogs, managing SDP, running for elections… In the eyes of Grace Fu all these “works” do not count, the greats like Gandhi, Mandela and Sun Yat Sen who did not work most of their entire life for a full time job were not fit to govern and knew nuts about management! Her statement also smack of Elitist: Does she look down on Singaporeans who are freelancers, artists, writers, bloggers, unemployed, homemakers who do not hold a full time job?
- To spin her argument the other way round, what are the likes of Dr Vivian Balakrishnan (Eye Surgeon), Ng Eng Hen (Heart surgeon) and Koh Poh Koon (Colorectal surgeon) know about Foreign Affair, Defence and National Development and managing town councils?
“Sell your HDB and (or) rent (it) if you are poor, HDB is not a bank.” -Minister Koh Poh Koon (2016)
- FULL TEXT: In a reply to PAP MP Joan Pereira who was asking the government what kind of mortgage assistance HDB provides to the retrenched, particularly those in their late 40s and 50s. Minister Koh Poh Koon responded: “For those who face longer-term hardship… Right-sizing to a flat within their means is also an option. For low income households who are unable to afford another flat, have no family support and no other housing options, HDB may offer them a public rental flat. The Housing Board is not a bank and is unable to offer personal loans.”
- This is the same doctor who moronically uttered “Everybody has a car, we have two… We are professionals, we need to travel”, who had since entered the Parliament via the GRC backdoor to become another million dollar minister who is so out of touch with the masses, Askmelah is of the opinion that Dr. Koh is better off stayed as a
asshole (pun intended)colorectal surgeon.
“Instead of naming the individuals and developing a blame culture in our healthcare institutions, we need to encourage a learning culture to make our hospitals as safe as possible for the patients.” – Health Minister Gan Kim Yong (2016)
- Amid calls for more details on the identities of, and punishments for, 16 MOH and SGH employees involved in the hepatitis C outbreak in 2015 which resulted in 8 deaths, Health Minister Gan said the important thing to do is to learn from the mistake to prevent a repeat. Red herring: keeping mum about the identities of culprits has nothing to do with learning culture as improvement process will always be in place ANYWAY when a disaster of this scale happens.
- This episode contradicts starkly with his
moronic“esteemed” counterpart Khaw which only last year articulated the hara-kiri words of taking responsibility, nevertheless it does align squarely with PAP’s philosophy of “I would not believe that transparency is everything” and recent spates of not taking ownership for screw-ups. When the battery of ministers trained their arsenal on the opposition MPs for a good six months on AHPETC accounting issues, eight deaths (aka SGH-gate) should not be held accountable in public in order to avoid a “blame culture”. Win liao lor!
“PAP does not have ‘a tradition of backstabbing our mentors'” – Vivian Balakrishnan (Sep2015)
“If my father had not taken that boat to Singapore, today I might be a Chinese citizen … if we didn’t separate in 1965, today you and I would be Malaysians, ‘heng’ (lucky) ah” – Lim Swee Say (Sep 2015)
- Reaction to his uncalled for remarks was swift with many criticising him for belittling other countries’ economic progress. It is grossly arrogant and insensitive. Askmelah may very well be the billionaire founder of Tencent’s Pony Ma instead of semi jobless. Lim Swee Say is beyond doubt a shameful political liability of Singapore, Period. More: Heng ah, I was not born in Singapore – FT
“We are our own check. The integrity of our leaders, of our MPs. That’s where the check comes from. … not this seductive lie of check and balance.” (August 2015)
- Emeritus Senior Minister Goh Chok said that check and balance is a seductive lie and that the ruling party PAP government is their own checks. Askmelah wonders if a similar incident similar to 1MDB ever happened to Temasek Holding, it will have a slim chance of being exposed with little transparency and information, few opposition MPs in parliament and strong grip of the mass media by the Government. Ho Ching reports to Lee Hsien Loong, no need for check and balance? Who is he kidding? Might as well has no democracy since PAP will do no wrong. Why the hypocrisy? More on Ownself check ownself? “
- “Letting (the PAP) check themselves is (like) giving them a blank cheque.”-Sylvia Lim
- Sounds like another infamous quote of Lee Hsien Loong (The Telegraph UK) : “Our funds are accountable to the Government. I would not believe that transparency is everything.”
“In Japan, the CEO and board of directors will call a press conference and take a deep bow, and in the good old days, they may even commit hara-kiri. Where there are breaches of the Companies Act, both the company as well as the individuals responsible will be charged, and if found guilty, punished with fines and/or jail terms for the individuals.” (Feb 2015)
- Khaw Boon Wan on management lapses committed by Opposition-held town council and demanded drastic actions by the Opposition MPs.
- Askmleah thinks the likes of Wong Kan Seng’s Mas Selamat incident, Mah Bow Tan’s mismanagement of the housing issue, Khaw Boon Wan in the Seng Kang’s columbarium incident, Teo Chee Hean’s ICA security breaches and Little India Riots, Lui Tuck Yew’s numerous MRT breakdowns under his watch, Vivian Balakrishnan’s various “ponding” incidents, YOG overbudget by three times and hundred of million lost, and Lee Hsien Loong’s mismanagement of immigration issues will certainly fit the bill super well. The magnitude and loss of these incidents are many folds that of AHPETC audit issue.
- Numerous PAP MPs put on 24-hour suicide watch after Khaw Boon Wan said commit suicide because of lapses. See a long list of past blunders committed or associated by Khaw himself. He would have committed hara-kiri many times over, if he were born in the good old days. Askmelah’s advice to Khaw: please think carefully in future before you use colourful words. “I’m a reasonable person. I don’t go around asking people to commit suicide…” and Khaw’s famously said “I do not like to attack others, I will focus on what I can do, what I’ve done and what I can do for the voters, and then let the voters choose themselves , you attack other people, what for?”
“I don’t respond to anything on The Real Singapore, which is a Facebook page and website written by morons, commented on by morons, and read and shared by morons.” (2014)
- Calvin Cheng, technically not a political leader and Askmelah don’t know what significant contribution he has done to the political landscape, but being a Nominated MP, let’s count him as one and this quote is one of those many moronic comments like the rest featured here.
“Everybody has a car, we have two… We are professionals, we need to travel” (2013)
- Defeated Punggol East PAP candidate Dr. Koh Poh Koon later admitted that “even an idiot wouldn’t say that”. He meant to say that, as doctors, he and his wife are “medical professionals” who need their cars to attend to emergencies. Just that it smacks of Elitism.
“While they (Singaporeans) do not criticise their parents’ imperfections, when it comes to the Government, they see only warts… and freely criticise it for its slightest mistakes or when we disagree with it”.
- Ex-PM Goh Chok Tong used the analogy that the Government is like a parent in a family and warned that the New Normal of criticising the Government may lead to fractiousness, divisiveness and estrangement in the Singapore Family.
- Askmelah says no children will pay their parents a market rate salary, in fact world’s highest, to be their parents, using Goh’s own analogy. “The question to ask is what lies at the root of the discontent or the disengagement between the G and the people. I am going to stick my neck out and say that it is ministerial salaries. I consider it the root of all evil. Serious. It reduces what should be a social compact into a business contract. We cannot see the family analogy because we are run like a business.” - Bertha Henson.
- See the damaging response from the netizens, looks like another dumb comment from Goh.
“They (top civil servants) get paid more, they’re highly educated, and they have bigger egos, bigger than any government employees I’ve met anywhere else in the world. It’s not good or bad, but they consider themselves superior to almost any government employee in the world.”
- renowned executive coach Marshall Goldsmith on civil servants’ ego in Singapore.
“We make sure that the whole system is of a high standard. Every school is a good school. But parents and students have a different perspective. They accept the MOE argument but they still have strong preferences for certain schools. “ (2013)
- Lee Hsien Loong said this in his 2013 National Day Rally speech.
- “How many of our leaders and top officers who say that every school is a good school put their children in ordinary schools near their home? (Only) until they actually do so are parents going to buy (it).” Those were the exact words of Jurong West Secondary School (JWSS) vice-principal Pushparani Nadarajah, who was responding to speakers and teachers’ discussions of making every school a good one at the inaugural AsiaEducationExpo (AEX) 2013, according to a report by The Straits Times.
“If I can get another 10 billionaires to move to Singapore and set up their base here… I think Singapore will be better off because they will bring business, they will bring opportunities”
- Lee Hsien Loong (5 Jul 2013), read more from Financial Times on “Billionaires and their supercars add to Singapore inequality concerns“. Yes, the super riches bring along business and opportunities, but why are we feel increasingly more unhappy and more insecure than we were 10-20 years ago? More on super riches in Singapore.
“If they cannot find jobs, what is the point? You own a degree, but so what? That you can’t eat it. If that cannot give you a good life, a good job, it is meaningless… Can you have a whole country where 100 per cent are graduates?”
- Khaw Boon Wan responding to a participant who said the Government should set aside more university places for Institute of Technical Education (ITE) and polytechnic graduates.
- Askmelah wonders why then is the Government has been building more and more polytechnics and universities while lamenting that fertility rate is dropping to an alarming level? The Government’s aim is to get 50% to get into local universities while another 20-30% will get theirs through private, part-time and overseas degrees. We are not that far from the 100% target if you ask me.
- [Updated 54May2015] Many Singaporeans who don’t get into a local college go abroad. Four in 10 graduates in the resident labor force last year got their degrees overseas (source). The irony is lots of local university places are given to foreign students for free (mainly China and Indian scholarship holders) or at highly subsidized rate (e.g. Asean students) and yet our born-and-bred students has to pay exorbitant fee to go overseas to get a degree to come back to compete with foreign-born local grads. Plain stupidity on the part of Government if you ask me. [Updated 18May2016: Another policy flip flop].
“Public housing will always be affordable … I am confident because we are the ones who set the price for new HDB flats….. That is a promise that we can deliver.”
- National Development Minister Khaw Boon Wan gave his assurance that the (Woodlands) developments would not drive housing prices there out of control when not too long ago his predecessor was saying “LOWERING land cost as a way to reduce new Housing Board flat prices is tantamount to raiding Singapore’s reserves.”
“Headline inflation is expected to remain at 5 per cent for the next few months but the majority of Singaporean households will not be directly affected.” (2012)
- Trade and Industry Minister Lim Hng Kiang explained that this is because inflation is largely driven by imputed rentals from owner-occupied accommodation and car prices, and most Singaporean households own their own homes while new car buyers are in the minority.
- Really? this sounds like his other infamous quote on health care subsidy. Assume his logic is correct, then these two items should be removed or assigned a lower weightage; The fact is he is trivialising the inflation effect.
- CIMB-GK Research economist Song Seng Wun pointed out that the average Singaporean will still feel the weight of inflation, as businesses facing spiralling costs pass that on to consumers. The tight labour market has pushed wages up, while rentals for commercial properties have only eased recently, resulting in higher business costs.
- PAP MP Hri Kumar said at a forum in April 2014. What is the point of offering different views or even opposing controversial bills such as the Casino, Population White Paper, Elected President and yet can not vote to reflect the voters’ discontent with the damaging policies. What is the difference then between these ruling party’s MPs from the opposition MPs? Can only bark and yet can not vote against any of the legislations that they may disagree with when it comes to passing the laws? Giving “different views” mean nothing if not followed through on.
‘The fugitive (Mas Selamat) was either still in Singapore, hidden by sympathisers, or had fled the country – a scenario he said was “more pausible” - Wong Kang Seng
- DPM Wong was quoted saying this sometimes in Jan 2009, Mas Selamat was subsequently caught in JB (Malaysia) officially on 1 Apr 2009 over a year after his escape. The Straits Times, May 9 2009
- Askmelah’s all-time favourite. What a brilliant prediction from a million dollar minister, who is the right hand man of the Prime Minister, in saying “I don’t know what the hell is happening under my watch!”. It epitomises a political language of the highest level for all future generation of politicians to emulate and surpass.
“Because they (people from less developed countries) don’t know what life is, they’re quite happy. They wake up, they brush their teeth, then they’ll farm, and then they’ll sleep. But do you want it that way?” (2011)
- Goh Chok Tong noting that surveys indicate how people in less-developed countries are happier and presumed that these people don’t know what life is. The Singaporean version: They don’t know what life is: they’re NOT happy. They wake up, they brush their teeth, then they go to work (squeeze in sardine-packed buses, MRTs and highways), and then they’ll sleep. But do you want it that way? Read more: An Elitist’s View On Life.
“If we don’t do that (increase the Ministers’ pays by 60%), in the long term, the government system will slowly crumble and collapse.” (2007)
- Then DPM Teo Chee Hean in 2007 announcing and defending the controversial 60 percent pay raise for the ministers and political holders. Ironically, the ministers took a 30% pay cut after the 2011 watershed election after the voters voicing their displeasure with the hardships that ensued and rendering the biggest defeat suffered by PAP post 1980.
- “The question to ask is what lies at the root of the discontent or the disengagement between the G(overnment) and the people. I am going to stick my neck out and say that it is ministerial salaries. I consider it the root of all evil. Serious. It reduces what should be a social compact into a business contract. We cannot see the family analogy because we are run like a business.” – Bertha Henson
- read more PAP thinks greed is good but citizens differ
“If the annual salary of the Minister of Information, Communication and Arts is only $500,000, it may pose some problems when he discuss policies with media CEOs who earn millions of dollars because they need not listen to the minister’s ideas and proposals, hence a reasonable payout will help to maintain a bit of dignity.” -- Dr Lim Wee Kiat, PAP MP for Nee Soon GRC, 24 May 2011 (Lianhe Wanbao)
- Askmelah‘ Note: So to say if a police officer who earns about S$1000-2000 per month, talk to us we can choose not to respect or listen to him since many of our middle income executives are earning way above that amount? How dumb can a politician say this?
“I didn’t ask for it. That was the rate for the job, that’s what I accepted. You don’t like the rate, I can’t help it.” (2011)
- President Nathan who doesn’t feel he needs to defend his high salary which has been criticised extensively online. (The Sunday Times 7 Aug 2011)
“GST hike is to help the poor.” - Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong (Straits Times, 7 June 2007)
- Askmelah remains to be convinced after so many years that the GST hike has helped or benefited the poor!
“If we spent 387 million dollars, will we get value from that expenditure? In my mind, the answer … is yes.” (2010)
- Dr Vivian Balakrishnan in defending YOG budget blowout opined that YOG still worth its salt if he had known the cost of the YOG were three times the original estimate. Talk about accountability.
- Unlike F1 and the two integrated resorts, many Singaporeans remain to be convinced how the $388m helps to boost tourism or boost Singapore’s image as a fun place to visit. It is money not well spent, period!
“We started off with (the name) and after looking at everything, the name that really tugged at the heartstrings was in front of us. The name itself is not new, but what has been used informally so far has endeared itself to all parties.”
- Mah Bow Tan on the $400,000 exercise to rename Marina Bay as Marina Bay.
- There is another similar incident in an exercise to find the best name for Singapore’s first budget terminal, the final name chosen: the Budget Terminal.
“How much do you want? Do you want 3 meals in a hawker centre, food court or restaurant?”
- Minister for MCYS Dr Vivian Balakrishnan in replying to a request by MP Dr Lily Neo’s “Is it too much to ask for just 3 meals a day as an entitlement for the PA recipients?” (25 April 2007)
“If you ask me whether it has got anything to do with the elections, the answer is ‘yes’. everything has got to do with the elections”
- Mah Bow Tan, Minister for National Development, in announcing a raft of measures to curb property speculation (The Sunday Times, 5Sep2010).
“Remember your place in society before you engage in political debate… Debate cannot generate into a free-for-all where no distinction is made between the senior and junior party… You must make distinctions – What is high, what is low, what is above, what is below, and then within this, we can have a debate, we can have a discussion… people should not take on those in authority as ‘equals’” – Former Foreign Minister George Yeo (1994)
“No, it was not a U-turn, and neither was it a reversal of government policy. But you can call it a rethink.” - Yeo Cheow Tong
“Every month, when I receive my CPF statement, I feel so rich and the best part is, I know the CPF money won’t run away.” - NTUC Secretary-General Mr. Lim Swee Say and Minister without Portfolio said this in 2008. (Source)
(Askmelah’s note: We all know that our ministers are paid millions of dollars but it is highly inappropriate to declare it on national media.)
“If you’re the best today, strive to be better. If you’re better today, strive to be ‘betterer’ and if you’re ‘betterer’ today, strive to be ‘betterest’ so that over time, Singapore’s service standards can just keep getting better, ‘betterer’ and ‘betterest’.” (2010)
- NTUC Secretary-General Mr. Lim Swee Say and Minister without Portfolio shocked Singaporeans with his “improvisation” of the English language. He is also famous for coining the phrase “cheaper, better and faster” to exhort Singaporeans to increase their competitiveness in 2007.
“Only 5% are unemployed. We still have 95% who are employed.” — Yeo Cheow Tong
“just like good chili crab will sell, no matter where the stall is located”
- Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong trivialised the impact of redrawing of electoral boundaries in which WP chairman Sylvia Lim called the analogy a “red herring to confuse voters”. Using Mr Goh’s analogy, she countered “SM Goh must be aware that he is one of the three most well-known chilli crab stall operators, besides Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew and Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, operating chain stalls all over Singapore in the form of the GRCs. (and thus forcing the smaller chilli crab operators out of business)”. Source: TodayOnline Mar1,2011
“Contrary to public perception, the White Horse classification is not to ensure that sons of influential men gets preferential treatment. Instead it is to ensure that they do not get preferential treatment.”- Cedric Foo
- who is this Cedric kidding? [Updated 21Oct2011] In response to Workers’ Party MP Pritam Singh’s (Aljunied GRC) question about the “white horse” programme – where sons of civil servants allegedly receive preferential treatment in NS – and whether medical dockets continue to be stamped today with the white horse stamp, the Defense Minister Dr Ng Eng Hen said “no”.
“Suppose you had 10, 15, 20 opposition members in Parliament. Instead of spending my time thinking what is the right policy for Singapore, I’m going to spend all my time thinking what’s the right way to fix them, to buy my supporters votes, how can I solve this week’s problem and forget about next year’s challenges?”
- Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong on why Singaporeans cannot vote in too many Opposition candidates. This view contradicts Tharman’s view in 2011 that a strong Opposition is good for Singapore and even the PAP. Channel NewsAsia, May 3, 2006
“People support CPF cuts because there are no protest outside parliament.” – Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
- Either LHL is hugely out of touch or he is kidding himself, you need to apply for a licence from the Police in Singapore to protest. Not only the time taken for the approval is long, the purpose of the protest must be stated. If the purpose in known, the chances to get the licence is virtually zero as “public safety” is often cited as the paramount concern, the only way to protest safely is a small little obscure corner known as the “Speaker’s Corner” which is allowed lately and a butt of jokes around the “openness” of Singapore Government.
“We will manage immigration to make sure Singapore doesn’t become too crowded.”
- PM Lee Hsien Loong reassured the nation that he will tackle the immigration issue on National Day Rally 2010 after the uproar of the lapse immigration policy resulting in soaring property markets, crowded MRT, buses, roads and schools. Two years after he said that, the population increased by another 240,000 or 4.7% which is huge for a small country.)
- 50,770 new citizens/PRs in 2015?
“Leave the gambling to the tourists”
- Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong reiterated in his Mandarin National Day 2010 Rally speech that Singaporeans should leave the gambling to foreigners. In other words, it is a tourist trap that guarantees to suck your money dry so Singaporeans be warned. LHL inadvertently revealed the country’s “top secret”.
“For a person who runs a million-dollar charitable organisation, $600,000 is peanuts as it has a few hundred millions in reserves.”
- Mrs Goh Chok Tong defending the high monthly pay of Durai, CEO of Non-Government-Organisation (NGO) NKF.
“Save on one hairdo and use the money for breast screening.”
- Then Health Minister Lim Hng Kiang rejecting the suggestion by MP Dr. Lily Neo to provide subsidy for breast cancer screening (source)
“The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) spends more than 80 per cent of its funds on its beneficiaries, which is within the guidelines set for charities.”
- said then Minister Lim Hng Kiang (Prime Minister’s Office), little have he foreseen the NKF scandal that unfolded thereafter (link)
“Having enjoyed football as a national sport for decades, we in Singapore have set ourselves the target of reaching the final rounds of World Cup in 2010.” - Ho Peng Kee
- In World Cup 2010, Singapore was seeded 29th in Asia and did not make it in the sub-group qualifying round, more reporting here.
“Retrenchment is good for Singapore. If there is no retrenchments, then I worry.” – SM Goh
- Sounds like his wife who infamously said that S$600,000 salary for the ex-CEO of Nation Kidney Foundation (NKF) is peanuts and probably the only senior leader in the world that worry if there is no retrenchment in their country.
“I don’t think that there should be a cap on the number of directorship that a person can hold.” – PAP MP John Chen who held 8 directorships.
- A murderer once declared that “I don’t think there should be capital punishment for killing someone”
“It’s not for the money because some of the companies pay me as little as $10,000 a year.” - PAP MP Wang Kai Yuen who held 11 directorships.
- that’s right, $10,000 is very low for attending 4 board meetings a year to crack his head is hard work compared to the $15,000 per month part time job received as a MP and don’t have to do much!
“One evening, I drove to Little India and it was pitch dark but not because there was no light, but because there were too many Indians around.”
- former PAP MP Mr Choo Wee Khiang (1992). He later apologised for the inappropriate comment.
“Singaporean workers have become more expensive than those in the USA and Australia.” - Tony Tan
- Since when? Er, may be he was referring to the top civil servants, President and the ministers’ pays.
“Our funds are accountable to the government. I would not believe that transparency is everything.”- PM Lee Hsien Loong, The Telegraph UK
- It is like Kong Hee saying to the public: “our funds are accountable to the board. I would not believe that transparency is everything.” If a well respected and religious Paster can make mistake, who can guarantee that there will not be crook or cover-up in the Government. Politicians are generally not the most, if not the least, trustable people all over the world, period. Read More.
“Fair-weather Singaporeans will run away whenever the country runs into stormy weather. I call them “quitters.”- ex-PM Goh Chok Tong
- @#$%^%. Sorry for the expletives, I think some delivery men, construction workers and cleaners work harder and longer than you and get 1/100th of your pay, Minister Sir!
“Only rich or corrupt people work for free.”
- Vivian Balakrishnan, when asked about the salaries of Members of Parliament (2015)
- But to reward yourself with the highest salary in the world to work for the Government for a small country like Singapore just does not seem right, No?
“The PAP Government has always thrived on its ability to anticipate problems.” – Wong Kan Seng
- Askmelah agrees completely after seeing the billions of dollars lost on investment by Temasek and GIC, the mismanagement of immigration policy post 2007, the Mas Selamat escape, the one-in-50 years floods, the Little India riot, the China bus drivers’ strike, the reversal of welfare state style subsidy, the hacking of Government website, the immigration breaches, all happened in the last 10 years despite we paid the highest salary to ministers and civil servants in the world.
“We are very prudent in managing public funds.”
- Transport Minister Lew Tuck Yew explaining in 2012 Parliament the sharp increase in the budget for constructing the Downtown Line rail network which increased from S$12 billion to about S$20.7 billion mostly due to sharp rises in construction costs and changes to the original designs of the line (16Nov2012, CNA).
More reports here.
you may also interested to read:
- Tan Soo Khoon & Singapore Seven Wonders
- Dirty Politics Singapore Journals
- (In)Famous Quotes From Lee Kuan Yew
- Social and Workplace Enclaves in Singapore
Other related links:
- Vote For Your Favorite Singapore’s Famous Quotes
- What’s your favorite personal Quotes?
- Notable quotes from RedBeanForum.com
- Famous singaporean quotes-ThinkExist.com
- Elitism Quotes (PAP)